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It surrounds the image of a long-haired lady giving birth (? For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: vi vii xvx List of Maps List of Abbreviations Ac knowledgeme nts Introduction: Vikings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Their Age The Aim I NDIVIDUALS F AMILIES C OMMUNITIES AND A SSOCIATIONS D ISTRICTS AND T ERRITORIES P EOPLES P OLITICS WAR W ORK E MIGRATION P AST P RESENT F UTURE Postscript: M ODERN R ESEARCH Appendixes: A D YNASTIC I DENTITIES B D ATES C W EIGHTS AND M EASURES D T HEGNS References Index 1±9 10 38 64 87 112 133 168 189 214 236 251 279 301 325 327 333 335 337 367 Maps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Women of some importance Big men, c.900±c.1050 Hypothetical territories, c.750±c.1000 Viking-Age districts Scandinavian peoples, 750±1050 The Danish kingdom under Canute Chiefdoms and kingdoms, c.800 Import±export, 800±950 Migration, 950±1050 Cults Rune-stone regions, c.970±1070 Burial rites, c.900±c.1000 18 75 90 95 113 151 161 211 234 260 277 287 Abbreviations AA AAL Aarbùger AB AEW AF AÂgrip ANF ANS AP ARF ASC ASB ASCEN ASP ASE ASSAH ASMA AU Acta Archaeologica, Copenhagen. Aarbùger for nordisk oldkyndighed og historie, Copenhagen 1866±. 39 Flodoard, Annales, 925 (PL cxxxv, 435c); deemed a case of `black-and-white honour' by Alexander Murray in Suicide in the Middle Ages i (Oxford 1998), 62.
) to dragons under a canopy, pre-Viking Age in origin: see p.265. Adam of Bremen: Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiñ Ponti®cum. Flodoard suggests that it was not dishonour or defeat they feared, but massacre.
Solli has proposed Odin as a sort of cosmic queer, but given the nature of the evidence, it is hard to disentangle he-men in frocks, nancy-boys, and ritual perverts. However, where wrong can only be righted by agreement between interested groups of responsible males, it follows that the irresponsible wrongdoer can expect to be killed out of hand by someone, or excluded from the protection of a group: his family, or kin, in this case.
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It has been asserted that in viking times the warrior reserved his love for other males, and was therefore disinclined to express love for women in verse, hence the heterosexual de®cit in Skaldic poems; a chain of reasoning weakened still further by the notion that the later romantic verse (mannsoÈngr) of the Icelanders developed from songs directed at female35 slaves to humiliate their owners, not to express genuine passion. Whatever bond there was between males can only be inferred from later or earlier analogies, such as the feeling which in historic times reigned between the Finnish headman (noita) and his corps of pure young men sent out to reconnoitre forest with a view to sanctifying the place suitable for burn-beating.
After all, these men were sailors, who spent time together, so that manly-man homosexuality between consenting adults may have been as common as at other periods; not in the least remarkable, and so not remarked upon in sources.
36 The workman-like speci®cation of outlawries in e.g.